Anthropology Discussion post - Science homework help
Genetics & Variability This week we are making our own family trees. Family trees are used to understand how people in families are biologically (and culturally) related. They are also used to show how traits are inherited from past generations and predict the probability of inheriting traits in future generations. Use the directions below to construct your own family tree that follows a trait through three continuous generations (for example: you, your parents, and your grandparents) 1. Start here to learn how to read and make a family tree.  Start here to learn how to blend together how to make a family tree with following the inheritance pattern of a trait. I would also check out week 5s lecture notes and (if you decided to purchase it) page 45-50 in the France lab book.  2. Decide if you want to outline your family tree or a made up one. Choose a trait in that family (one that does not violate HIPAA or patient privacy laws) or make one up. Trace that trait through at least three generations and choose something visible or whatever interests you so its easy to follow. Many traits, like hair or eye color, have several genes that code for it, so those kinds of traits might not be easy to trace. 3. Then ask yourself: How is the trait inherited - is it a dominant, recessive, or sex-linked trait? Make sure to indicate the inheritance pattern in your tree as well as a legend so we know how to read it. Be sure to read directions on how to construct a tree, which, again are listed here, in the module, and in the France lab book (pages 45-50). Please do not guess - for example, I will notice if you assume that they trait is dominant because it appears frequently in the tree. I will redirect you to those directions to redo the assignment if you are guessing.   4. Draw your tree out on paper by hand or on the computer, as you wish. Once you have made your tree, please start a thread to share your tree with the class along with commentary on your learning experience. Commentary should include: what is the trait, is it a dominant or recessive trait, and what are the genotypes of the individuals in the tree. If you do not want to share your tree or believe it may violate HIPAA, you are welcome to send it to me via email and I can go through it with you individually. Generally, to avoid the HIPAA issue, it is best to use different names and a made-up trait. You dont have to be an artist - you can draw the pedigree by hand, scan it, and upload. You do not have to share the name of the trait or the names of family members either.  5.  Things to be aware of: Do you have contact with your biological relatives (dont answer that here, please)? If you dont, you are welcome to make up a tree, use one of the trees in the lab book, or use a friends family tree and trace a trait.  Please do not use hair or eye color as your trait. Lighter pigments behave in a recessive manner and darker ones behave in a dominant manner.  Also, pigmentation is polygenic and highly influenced by sunshine and personal augmentation (coloring hair, contacts, tanning) so sometimes its hard to tell what the pigments really are.   6. You will be tested on how to read a pedigree, how to follow a trait, and name how it is inherited.  7. When you figure out if the trait is inherited as a dominant or recessive, its not possible to guess. Dominant does not mean more frequent or more common (more here). Please try to figure it out using the information from the week 5 module.. . EXPLORATIONS: AN OPEN INVITATION TO BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY Editors: Beth Shook, Katie Nelson, Kelsie Aguilera and Lara Braff American Anthropological Association Arlington, VA 2019 CC BY-NC 4.0 International, except where otherwise noted ISBN – 978-1-931303-63-7 www.explorations.americananthro.org http:www.explorations.americananthro.org Chapter 3: Molecular Biology and Genetics: Hayley Mann, M.A., Binghamton University Xazmin Lowman, Ph.D., University of California, Irvine Malaina Gaddis, Ph.D. Learning Objectives • Define terms useful to molecular biology and genetics. • Explain and identify the purpose of both DNA replication and the cell cycle. • Identify key differences between mitosis and meiosis. • Outline the process of protein synthesis including transcription and translation. • Use principles of Mendelian inheritance to predict genotypes and phenotypes of future generations. • Explain complexities surrounding patterns of genetic inheritance and polygenic traits. • Discuss challenges to and bioethical concerns of genetic testing. I [Hayley Mann] started my Bachelor’s degree in 2003, which was the same year the Human Genome Project released its first draft sequence. I initially declared a genetics major because I thought it sounded cool. However, upon taking an actual class, I discovered that genetics was challenging. In addition to my genetics major, I signed up for biological anthropology classes and soon learned that anthropology could bring all those molecular lessons to life. For instance, we are composed of cells, proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Anthropologists often include these molecules in their studies to identify how humans vary; if there are meaningful differences, they propose theories to explain them. Since the release of the first human genome sequence, the field of genetics has grown into genomics. Researchers now address these complex questions on a large scale. To process “big data,” some scientists have moved to working on a computer full time doing computational biology. As you learned in Chapter 1, molecular anthropologists use genetics to compare ancient and modern populations as well as study nonhuman primates. Molecular anthropologists must also stay current with advancing technology you will learn about the results of some of this genomic research as it has been applied to fossils in Chapters 11 and 12). If you wish to be part of this dynamic field, then take advantage of available campus laboratory classes and internships and also never stop reading scientific papers. This chapter provides the basics for understanding human variation and how the evolutionary process works. A few advanced genetics topics are also presented because biotechnology is now commonplace in health and society. Understanding the science behind this remarkable field means you will be able to participate in bioethical and anthropological d
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