Read through the presentation and identify its main idea ---- Due in 4 hours - Sociology homework help
Read through the presentation and answer the following question with 400 words What were the discussion leaders’ main ideas? (Identify at least 2)Digital 2-Step Flow Caroline Gibbon Jenny Lee Kevin Condy Lauren Gan Will Stephenson Central Ideas ➔ Katz’s two-step flow model introduces a more social understanding of how thoughts and opinions spread. ➔ Media and social networks enable the spread of ideas. Essential Questions: ➔ In what ways does Katz’s model from the pre-internet era resemble modern media? ➔ Does it still have relevance as a theory? If so, how? Defining Two-Step Flow and Keywords Essential Question Exploration Case Studies Discussion and Takeaways Presentation Roadmap Research Summaries Limited Effects Theory Theorized that media does not have as large effect as we may perceive. Media holds little power over the influence between individuals, rather, media’s little effect on opinion making is because individuals and groups are so different. Highlighted the psychological or perception manipulation of media. 3 key groups in the dispersion of information: 1. Gatekeepers a. Screen media messages and spread information that align with others’ shared views 2. Opinion leaders a. Come from the give-and-take of information in everyday conversation b. Synthesizes relevant information to pass on to followers 3. Opinion followers a. Influenced by opinion leaders Direct propaganda is more likely spread through social circles (ex: family, colleagues, friends, etc.), where as isolated communities are more likely to be directly influenced by media. Paul Lazarsfeld - 1940s to 1960s Two-Step Flow vs. One-Step Flow One-step flow or Hypodermic Needle theory ➔ It is a communication process in which the mass media communicates directly to the mass audience, without the message being filtered by Opinion Leaders. ◆ More likely to reinforce latent opinions than to reframe them ➔ It allows for precise targeting of audience members ➔ It reflects both a transformation in communication technologies and fundamental changes in the relations between individuals and society. ◆ Individuals not only are receivers of information, but also are producers and distributors. ➔ The mass media in the one-step flow are more fragmented and differentiated ◆ Conventional mass media reach smaller audiences, while niche media attract increasing numbers, making it harder to send effective generalized messages, but easier to target messages to increasingly specific publics. ◆ Through these targeted messages, the audience only gets influenced by the mass media and not by other factors, so they are not exposed to or aware of other translations or perceptions of the message. Lazarsfeld and Katz argued against this theory, as they recognize that media influences are limited by an individual’s differences, psychology, and social influences. They proposed the two-step flow theory as a way to explain the varying effects media has on their audiences. The hypothesis of the two-step flow challenged the one-step flow, or hypodermic needle theory
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